The first step in the hemp extraction process uses ethanol as a solvent to remove all organic matter from the plant, including all cannabinoids, terpenes (entourage/synergistic effect), fats, and lipids. The ethanol is then evaporated, condensed, and removed. This process leaves you with an end product known as crude, or full spectrum oil. Full spectrum oil contains all cannabinoids, including THC.
The next step in the extraction/refining process turns full spectrum oil into distillate. Distillate is a “cleaned-up” extract with the fats, lipids, terpenes (entourage/synergistic effect) and other organic matter removed, creating a golden liquid. Distillate contains all cannabinoids, including THC. Terpenes can be reintroduced at the end of the process for vaping purposes. Distillate is just a refined cannabinoid liquid.
The last step in the refining process allows for the isolation of various cannabinoids from distillate, such as CBD. This process creates CBD isolate. By isolating THC, you can remove it from the distillate, creating “T-free distillate”, also known as Broad Spectrum. This also gives you THC isolate as a byproduct. Broad Spectrum contains all cannabinoids, except THC. However, terpenes can be reintroduced.